International Giants of Otology: 19th Century Beginnings

Building upon the knowledge gained by earlier scholars such as Du Verney, Malpighi, Morgagni, Valsalva, Scarpa, Cortugno and others, the tools available to study structure and function in the nineteenth century facilitated a time of great discovery in Otology. Progression of the Microscope Many of the anatomical and physiological structures  of the ear are microscopic and…

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A Tale of Two Maneuvers – Part II

As discussed last week, there were two great anatomists who led audiologists and otolaryngologists to their fundamental knowledge of the auditory mechanism. Both were famous for their own middle ear equalization maneuvers.  Of course, these were the Valsalva and Toynbee maneuvers, created over a century apart. Each of these researchers made major contributions to knowledge…

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