So far in this story we have focused upon the Vikings, Harald I of Denmark, and the runestones of Jelling, Denmark, where the Vikings wrote their history in the language of Younger Futhark.
An unlikely individual to be involved in this story is the 1940s actress, Hedy Lamarr. According to Platt (2011), Ms. Lamarr’s greatest long-term contribution to society was not as an actress but as an inventor. Believe it or not, she was an inventor, and among her inventions was basic radio frequency technology.
She and the composer George Antheil co-invented and defined the early techniques for spread-spectrum communications and frequency-hopping technologies that were used in military communication for decades and which are now found in today’s most popular wireless bluetooth devices.
The sinking of a cruise ship in 1940 by Nazi U-boats inspired the Austrian-born actress to action. Martin (2011) states that when German submarines began targeting passenger cruise liners she felt compelled to do something to help the Allied cause. She zeroed in on torpedoes, which were powerful weapons but hard to control. Rhodes (2011) says that she thought if they could be radio-guided, they would be more likely to hit their target. He writes, “She understood that the problem with radio signals was that they could be jammed.” But she reasoned if the signal could hop around more or less randomly from frequency to frequency, the person trying to jam it wouldn’t know where to find it. Hence, says Rhodes, “If they try to jam one particular frequency, it might hit that frequency on one of its hops, but it would only be there for a fraction of a second.” Thus, her take on “spread-spectrum radio” was born.
Lamarr and George Antheil submitted their idea to the National Inventors Council and received a patent for their “Secret Communication System” in 1942. They were anxious to share their invention with the Navy, but got a lackluster response. Rhodes reports that the Navy basically threw their patent into the file and didn’t even consider doing anything with it until the late 1980s. Lamarr’s contribution was, therefore “lost in the noise” for decades.
In the 1990s, Hedy Lamarr was in her early 80s, when one of the pioneers of wireless communications for computers came across her patent. The patent and the concept behind it were so ingenious that she was belatedly honored for her invention. Based upon her invention, Microsoft, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Agere, Motorola, Nokia, and Toshiba, plus thousands of associate and adopters member companies began a special interest group (SIG) in 1998 to develop wireless technology utilizing the radio frequency concept to replace RS 232 connection cables.
The developers of the technology within the SIG first began to use the name “Bluetooth” as a code while the technology was in the development process. Over time, the name stuck. It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blåtand (Bluetooth in English, whom we wrote about in Parts I and II of this series). As discussed earlier, King Bluetooth was very influential in uniting Scandinavia during an era when the region was torn apart by wars and feuding clans. Therefore, the code name seemed fitting for a connective device that brings together products. According to Bluetooth.com (2011), the founders of the Bluetooth SIG chose the name because:
1) Bluetooth technology was first developed [actually refined from Hedy Lamarr’s invention] in Scandinavia, and
2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries, such as the cell phone, computing, and automotive markets. Bluetooth wireless technology simplifies and combines multiple forms of wireless communication into a single, secure, low-power, low-cost, globally available radio frequency.
Audiologists began to see Bluetooth technology enter our field in 2006 when it was first used in hearing instruments. These products now allow patients to connect to their cell phone, television, and other Bluetooth-capable devices. Thanks to the hard work of the Bluetooth special interest group, the inventive genius of a glamorous American actress, and the extremely capable engineers designing today’s hearing instruments, we now have a connection modality for hearing-impaired people that offers true benefit and increased value to amplification products.
It was a Scandinavian firm that originally designed the bluetooth logo at about the same time the SIG was formally introduced to the public. Keeping to the same origin as the Bluetooth name, the logo combines the Runic alphabetic characters H and B, the initials for Harald Bluetooth. Just as the Bluetooth King united Scandinavia, so does the technology that bears his name unite devices that can be used together. If you look closely enough at the logo, you can see both of these letters of the ancient alphabet embodied within it. These Runic letters are part of the Younger Futhark Viking language, and…..
…….thus form the connection of
Younger Futhark to Audiology.
Martin, R. (2011). Most beautiful woman by day, inventor by night. All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved January 31, 2012: http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=142664182&m=142828809
Platt, J., (2011). You can thank 1940s sex symbol Hedy Lamarr for today’s Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices. Mother Mature Network. Retrieved January 31, 2012:
Rhodes, R., (2011). Hedy;s Folly: The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr, The Most Beautiful Woman in the World. New York: Doubleday, Random House Publishing.
Blue tomorrow.com (2011). Bluetooth History. Retrieved January 31, 2012: http://www.bluetomorrow.com/about-bluetooth-technology/history-of-bluetooth/bluetooth-history.html