International Giants of Otology: Malpighi, Morgagni, Cortungo, Valsalva & Scarpa

At a time when lands and peoples were being discovered, the eighteenth century was also a great time of discovery in all areas of study, especially in Otology. The center of the world for science and technology was Europe and despite war, tyrannical monarchs, and various diseases, great strides were being made in the discovery of anatomical structures,…

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A Tale of Two Maneuvers – Part I

Two great anatomists led audiologists and otolaryngologists to their fundamental knowledge of the auditory mechanism, both were famous for their own middle ear equalization maneuvers: the Valsalva and Toynbee maneuvers.  The maneuvers were created over a century apart,  but both researchers’ contributions provided major increases in knowledge of the auditory system, its anatomy, physiology and diseases.  …

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