Hitler’s Hearing Loss – Part I

This series of posts at looks at Hitler’s hearing impairment.  It is certainly not a tribute, but an interesting discussion of a hearing loss that was accumulated over a lifetime by an historical figure. This series is a re-visit of a topic that was first discussed at Hearing International August 27-September 10, 2013. While much of the content will be taken from the 2013 originals, components have been added in this visitation of Hitler’s Hearing Loss.  At the end of this 3-week series, there will be an estimate of his likely hearing impairment. 

h1While history will never know the extent of this impairment, there is evidence that can be compared with what we know today that gives us clues as to the extent of his hearing impairment. Did this have any effect on behavior? Did this cause miscommunication among trusted generals and others? Other issues? At the end of our discussion …you decide….RMT

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Like most World War I survivors, Hitler had been exposed to intense noise during the war in the trenches and sheer speculation would suggest that he had some high-frequency sensori-neural hearing loss. While that is speculation, there is documented medical evidence suggesting that he did incur some hearing impairment during World War II as a result of drug injections and especially from the July 20, 1944 assassination attempt against him. Part I in this series offers some background into the plot to assassinate him.

Background

h10Since about 1938 there had been various plots in the German Army and in the German Military Intelligence Organization to depose Hitler. Early leaders of these plots were mostly political adversaries of Hitler and his National Socialist Party who had no plans to forcefully take over the government of Germany. One group of opponents called the Kreisau Circle met regularly in Kreisau (now Krzyżowa, Poland) at the home of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (right).h12 self-governing communities, so as to avoid a manipulation of the whole of society. The circle’s main focus was to plan and propose a peacetime government for Germany and  a society based on Christian values; they did not ever appear to have made any plans to overthrow the Nazi state. As van Moltke wrote to his wife just before his execution “we are to be hanged for thinking together.”

h2The July 20 plot was developed as a modification of Operation Valkyrie (Unternehmen Walküre). Operation Valkyrie had been approved by Hitler for use if there was a general breakdown in civil orders as the result of Allied  bombing of German cities or an uprising of forced laborers from occupied countries working in German factories. It called for the creation of the Reserve Army, which included members of the Kreisau Circle. They totally changed the Valkyrie plan to include assh11assinating not only Adolf Hitler, but also Hermann Goering (left, above) and Heinrich Himmler (left, below).  German Army officers General Friedrich Olbricht (above, right), Major General Henning von Tresckow (right, middle), and Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg (right, below) sought to take control of German cities, disarm the SS, and arrest the Nazi leadership once Hitler had been assassinated. Hitler’s death (as opposed to his arrest) was required to free German soldiers from their oath of loyalty to him (Reichswehreid). 

By mid-1943 the tide of war was turning decisively against Germany. The Army plotters and their civilian allies became convinced that Hitler should be assassinated so that a government acceptable to the western Allies could be formed, and a separate peace negotiated in time to prevent a Soviet invasion of Germany.

 

Count von Stauffenberg Joins the Group

h4In August 1943, Tresckow met, for the first time, a young staff officer named Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. Badly wounded in North Africa, Count von Stauffenberg was a political conservative, a zealous German nationalist and a Roman Catholic. From early in 1942, he had come to share two basic convictions with many military officers that:

1.  Germany was being led to disaster.

2. Hitler’s removal from power was necessary.

After the Battle of Stalingrad in December 1942, despite his religious scruples, he concluded that the Führer’s assassination was a lesser moral evil than Hitler’s remaining in power. Stauffenberg brought a new tone of decisiveness to the ranks of the resistance movement. When Tresckow was assigned to the Eastern Front, Stauffenberg took charge of planning and executing the assassination attempt.

 

Plot Thickens…….

h13After lengthy preparation, the plot was finally ready to be carried out in 1944. While a modification of the plans offered by the Kreisau Circle, General Olbricht suggested that this plan could be used to mobilize the Reserve Army for the purpose of the coup. In August and September 1943, Tresckow drafted the “revised” Valkyrie plan and new supplementary orders. A secret declaration began with these words: “The Führer Adolf Hitler is dead! A treacherous group of party leaders has attempted to exploit the situation by attacking our embattled soldiers from the rear in order to seize power for themselves.”

Detailed instructions were written for occupation of government ministries in Berlin, Himmler’s headquarters in East Prussia, radio stations and telephone offices, and other Nazi apparatus through military districts, and concentration camps. 

Previously, it was believed that Stauffenberg was mainly responsible for the Valkyrie plan, but documents recovered by the Soviet Union after the war and released in 2007 suggest that the plan was developed by Tresckow by autumn of 1943. All written information was handled by Tresckow’s wife, Erika, and by Margarete von Oven, his secretary. Both women wore gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints. Operation Valkyrie could only be put into effect by General Friedrich Fromm (above right), commander of the Reserve Army, so it was essential for the plan’s success that either he be won over to the conspiracy or be in some way neutralized. Fromm, like many senior officers, knew in general about the military conspiracies against Hitler but neither supported them nor reported them to the Gestapo.

 

Next week: The execution of the plot and how Hitler actually received a significant portion his hearing loss.

 

References:

Chen, P. (2018). Helmuth James Graf von Moltke.   World War II Database.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Editors (2017).  Gestapo:  Nazi Political Police.Encyclopedia Britannica.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Gedenkstatte Deutscher Widerstand (2016). HENNING VON TRESCKOW.  Retrieved January 9, 2018. 

History Channel (2018). Nazi Party. Retrieved January 9, 2018.

History Channel.com (2018). The SS. Retrieve January 9, 2018.

History.com (2018). General Fromm executed for plot against Hitler. Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Jones, N. (2008). Claus von Stauffenberg. Historynet.com Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Morehouse, D. (2014).  The Kreisau Circle.  Weimar and Nazi Germany.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

BBC (2014).  Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945). Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Staff (2015).  Hermann Göring.  History.com.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Truman, N. (2015). Battle of Stalingrad.  History Learning site.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Wikipedia (2017). General Fredrich Olbritch.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Wikipedia (2018) The German Army.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Wikipedia (2018). Reichswehreid.  Retrieved January 9, 2018.

Wirinner, A. (2013).  Why did Hitler tolerate the existence of the Abwehr (German military intelligence) for so long, even though they had opposed him and many of his policies? Quora. Retrieved January 8, 2018.

Ziwica, K. (2011).  Germany remembers Operation Valkyrie, the plot to kill Hitler.  Made for Minds. Retrieved January 9, 2018.

About Robert Traynor

Robert M. Traynor, Ed.D., MBA is the CEO and practicing audiologist at Audiology Associates, Inc., in Greeley, Colorado with particular emphasis in amplification and operative monitoring, offering all general audiological services to patients of all ages. Dr. Traynor holds degrees from the University of Northern Colorado (BA, 1972, MA 1973, Ed.D., 1975), the University of Phoenix (MBA, 2006) as well as Post Doctoral Study at Northwestern University (1984). He taught Audiology at the University of Northern Colorado (1973-1982), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (1976-77) and Colorado State University (1982-1993). Dr. Traynor is a retired Lt. Colonel from the US Army Reserve Medical Service Corps and currently serves as an Adjunct Professor of Audiology at the University of Florida, the University of Colorado, and the University of Northern Colorado. For 17 years he was Senior International Audiology Consultant to a major hearing instrument manufacturer traveling all over the world providing academic audiological and product orientation for distributors and staff. A clinician and practice manager for over 35 years, Dr. Traynor has lectured on most aspects of the field of Audiology in over 40 countries. Dr. Traynor is the current President of the Colorado Academy of Audiology and co-author of Strategic Practice Management a text used in most universities to train audiologists in practice management, now being updated to a 2nd edition.

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